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Selected Bibliography on Spirituality and Spiritual Formation

I offer this for those interested in further reading. You can find the original listing at:

Selected Bibliography on Spirituality and Spiritual Formation

Dr. Joel Stephen Williams


Adels, Jill Haak. (1987). The Wisdom of the Saints. New York: Oxford University Press.

Aelred. (1987). “The Earnest Prayer of an Imperfect Pastor.” Leadership 8 (Winter) 62-63.

Alexander, Donald L., ed. (1988). Christian Spirituality: Five Views of Sanctification. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press.

Allen, Loyd. (1990). “A Brief History of Christian Devotion.” Faith and Mission 7 (Spring) 3-18.

Astell, Ann W. (2002). “Reading the Bible with Holocaust Survivors and Rescuers: A New Biblical Spirituality.” Interpretation 56 (April) 181-91.

Athanasius. (1980). Athanasius: The Life of Antony and The Letter to Marcellinus. Translated by Robert C. Gregg. New York: Paulist Press.

Bailey, Raymond. (2001). “The Spiritual Route to Ministerial Survival.” Review and Expositor 98 (Fall) 595-602.

Baker, Eric W. (1961). “William Law.” London Quarterly & Holborn Review 186 (April) 139-43.

Banks, Robert. “‘Walking’ as a Metaphor of the Christian life: The Origins of a Significant Pauline Usage.” In Perspectives on Language and Text. Edited by Edgar W. Conrad and Edward G. Newing, 303-13. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 1987.

Balentine, Samuel E. (1981). “Jeremiah, Prophet of Prayer.” Review and Expositor 78 (Summer) 331-44.

Barclay, William. (1951). “Prayer.” The Expository Times 62 (April) 213-15.

Barnette, Henlee H. (1989). “The Minister as a Moral Role-Model.” Review and Expositor 86 (Fall) 505-16.

Becker, Nancy. (1984). “Teaching People to Pray.” Leadership 5 (Winter) 106-8.

Belshaw, G. P. Mellick. (1967). “The Issue of Christian Spirituality.” Anglican Theological Review 49 (April) 204-14.

Benedict. (1987). “The World Needs Monasticism!” Epiphany 7 (Winter) 41-47.

Benner, David G. (2003). Surrender to Love: Discovering the Heart of Christian Spirituality. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press.

Bloesch, Donald. (1991). “Lost in the Mystical Myths.” Christianity Today 35 (19 August) 22-24.

Bloesch, Donald. (1998). “The Friendship of the Lord.” Christianity Today 42 (February 9) 72-74.

Bobrinskoy, Boris. (1964). “Prayer and the Inner Life in Orthodox Tradition.” Studia Liturgia 3 (Summer) 30-48.

Bonner, Gerald. (1990). “Starting With Oneself; Spiritual Confessions: Saint Augustine’s Confessions.” Expository Times 101 (March) 163-67.

Booty, John E. (1991). “An Anglican Classic: Jeremy Taylor’s Holy Living and Holy Dying.” Anglican Theological Review 78 (Spring) 198-204.

Boulton, Wayne G. (1991). “Bringing Matthew Fox in From the Cold.” Theology Today 48 (October) 269-78.

Bouyer, Louis, Jean Leclercq, François Vandenbroucke, and Louis Cognet. (1960). The Spirituality of the New Testament and the Fathers. New York: The Seabury Press.

Bowman, John Wick. (1952). “Response in Fellowship.” Interpretation 6 (July) 279-89.

Boyd, Malcolm. (1974). “Devotional Books: Assessing the State of the Genre.” The Christian Century 91 (3 April) 373-76.

Boyd, Malcolm. (1980). “Quiet at the Heart of Fury.” The Christian Century 97 (2 April) 380-82.

Brachlow, Stephen J. (1992). “The Glorious Gospel: Our Spirituality Revealed.” Southwestern Journal of Theology 34 (Summer) 22-27.

Bradshaw, Paul F. (1978). “Spirituality in the Modern World: Liturgy and Spirituality.” The Expository Times 89 (July) 292-96.

Bratton, Susan Power. (1988). “The Original Desert Solitaire: Early Christian Monasticism and Wilderness.” Environmental Ethics 10 (Spring) 31-51.

Brigid. (1987). “The Gospel Call to Monasticism.” Epiphany 7 (Winter) 48-52.

Bunker, Diane E. (1991). “Spirituality and the Four Jungian Personality Functions.” Journal of Psychology and Theology 19 (Spring) 26-34.

Burrows, Mark S. (2002). “‘To Taste With the Heart’ Allegory, Poetics, and the Deep Reading of Scripture.” Interpretation 56 (April) 168-180.

Callen, Barry L. (2001). Authentic Spirituality. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic.

Cant, Reginald. (1978). “Spirituality in the Modern World: What Does Spirituality Mean in the Modern World?” The Expository Times 89 (February) 132-34.

Carson, D. A., ed. (1990). Teach Us To Pray. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House.

Carson, D. A. (1994). “When is Spirituality Spiritual? Reflections on Some Problems of Definition.” Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 37 (September) 381-94.

Casteel, John L. (1959). “The Life of Prayer and Devotion.” Union Seminary Quarterly Review 14 (March) 37-41.

Charry, Ellen T. (1997). “Spiritual Formation by the Doctrine of the Trinity.” Theology Today 54/3 (October) 367-80.

Charry, Ellen T. (1999). “Christian Spirituality: Whither?” Theology Today 56/1 (April) 1-4.

Clarke, Thomas E. (1988). “Jungian Types and Forms of Prayer.” In Carl Jung and Christian Spirituality. Edited by Robert L. Moore. New York: Paulist Press, 230-49.

Clingenpeel, Vivian. (1974). “Devotional Literature.” Review and Expositor 71 (Summer) 353-57.

Collmer, Robert G. (1959). “The Limitations of Mysticism.” Bibliotheca Sacra 116 (April-June 1959) 127-35.

Conn, Joann Wolski. (1999). “Spiritual Formation.” Theology Today 56/1 (April) 86-97.

Crosby, Harriet E. (1992). “Where to Start Reading Contemporary Christian Spirituality.” The Christian Century 109 (3-10 June) 584-87.

Cullman, Oscar. (1994). Prayer in the New Testament. Minneapolis: Fortress Press.

Cully, Iris V. (1984). Education for Spiritual Growth San Francisco: Harper & Row.

Cunningham, Lawrence S., and Keith J. Egan. (1996). Christian Spirituality: Themes from the Tradition. New York: Paulist Press.

Damm, John S. (1969). “The Gospel and the Spiritual Life of the Pastor.” Concordia Theological Monthly 40 (June-August) 427-33.

Davis, Charles, ed. (1961). English Spiritual Writers. New York: Sheed and Ward.

Davis, James Herbert, Jr. (1979). Fénelon. Boston: Twayne Publishers.

Demarest, Bruce, and Charles Raup. (1989). “Recovering the Heart of Christian Spirituality.” Criswell Theological Review 3 (Spring) 321-26.

Dreyer, Elizabeth, and Keith J. Egan. (1979). “Christian Prayer: Practice and Theory.” Horizons 6 (Spring) 99-107.

Dreyer, Elizabeth Ann. (1988). “Asceticism Reconsidered.” Weavings 6 (November-December) 6-15.

*Duffey, Michael K. “Called to Be Holy: The Reconvergence of Christian Morality and Spirituality.” Spirituality Today 38 (Winter 1986) 349-60.

Dupré, Louis, and Don E. Saliers, eds. (1991). Christian Spirituality: Post-Reformation and Modern. New York: Crossroad.

Edwards, James R. (1994). “Testing the Spiritualities.” Christianity Today 38 (12 September) 25.

Eggleston, George T., ed. (1957). Letters From a Saint: The Great Christian Guide to Peace of Mind and Soul. New York: Henry Holt and Company.

Elwell, Walter A. (1982). “Religion’s Second-best Seller.” Christianity Today 26 (3 September) 33-34.

Endres, John C. (2002). “Psalms and Spirituality in the 21st Century.” Interpretation 56 (April) 143-54.

Engen, John Van, ed. (1988). Devotio Moderna. New York: Paulist Press.

Erb, Peter C., ed. (1983). Pietists: Selected Writings. New York: Paulist Press.

Fairchild, Roy W. (1985). “The Pastor as Spiritual Director.” Quarterly Review 5 (Summer) 25-35.

Fairchild, Roy W. (1987). “Issues in Contemporary Spirituality: The Upsurge of Spiritual Movements.” Princeton Seminary Bulletin 8, no. 2, 3-16.

Fergusson, David. (1999). “Reclaiming the Doctrine of Sanctification.” Interpretation 53, 4, 380-90.

Ferré, Nels F. S. (1958). “Devotional and Pastoral Classics: Thomas Kelly: A Modern Mystic.” The Expository Times 69 (February) 135-37.

Filson, Floyd V. (1954). “Petition and Intercession.” Interpretation 8 (January) 21-34.

Fischer, Balthasar. (1993). “The Common Prayer of Congregation and Family In The Ancient Church.” In Studies In Early Christianity, 224-42. Edited by Everett Ferguson. New York: Garland Publishing.

Fortosis, Stephen. (2001). “Theological Foundations for a Stage Model of Spiritual Formation.” Religious Education 96/1 (Winter) 49-63.

Foster, Richard J. (1984). Freedom of Simplicity. San Francisco: Harper & Row.

Foster, Richard J. (1988). Celebration of Discipline. Revised edition. San Francisco: Harper & Row.

Foster, Richard J. (1992). Prayer: Finding the Heart’s True Home. HarperSanFrancisco.

Foster, Richard J. (1994). Prayers From the Heart. HarperSanFrancisco.

Fox, Matthew. (1978). “Spirituality for Protestants.” The Christian Century 95 (2-9 August) 731-36.

Garnsey, George. (1990). “Theology and Spirituality: An Overview of Developments in Recent Decades.” St. Mark’s Review 143 (Spring) 29-33.

Gerard of Zutphen. (1908). The Spiritual Ascent: A Devotional Treatise. Translated by J. P. Arthur. London: Burns & Oates.

Gibble, Kenneth L. (1985). “Spiritual Growth for Busy Pastors.” The Christian Ministry 16 (May) 15-17.

Gibbard, Mark. (1990). “Starting With Oneself: Spiritual Confessions: Dag Hammarskjøld: Markings.” The Expository Times 101 (February) 132-34.

Gibbs, Michael. (1958). “Devotional and Pastoral Classics: A Consideration of ‘The Introduction to the Devout Life’ of St. Francis de Sales.” The Expository Times 69 (May) 229-32.

Goetsch, Ronald W. (1986). “The Pastor’s Devotional Prayer Life.” Concordia Journal 12 (November) 217-20.

Graham, H. Tucker. (1943). “The Minister: The Man and His Task.” Union Seminary Review 55 (November) 37-46.

Grou, John Nicholas. (1955). Manual For Interior Souls. Westminster, MA: The Newman Press.

Guibert, Joseph de. (1946). The Theology of the Spiritual Life. Translated by Paul Barrett. New York: Sheed and Ward.

Hadidian, Dikran Y. (1964). “The Background and Origin of the Christian Hours of Prayer.” Theological Studies 25 (March) 59-69.

Hamilton, A. K. (1968). “The Priest as a Man of Prayer and a Teacher of Prayer.” Theology 71 (January) 7-12.

Hanson, R. P. C. (1993). “The Liberty of the Bishop to Improvise Prayer in the Eucharist.” In Studies In Early Christianity, 83-86. Edited by Everett Ferguson. New York: Garland Publishing.

Harper, Kenneth. (1962). “Law and Wesley.” Church Quarterly Review 163 (January-March) 61-71.

Hauerwas, Stanley. (1986). “Clerical Character: Reflecting on Ministerial Morality.” Word & World 6, no. 2, 181-93.

Healy, K. J. (1967). “Prayer (Theology of).” In New Catholic Encyclopedia. Volume 11. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 670-78.

Hess, M. Whitcomb. (1975). “William Law: A Devout and Holy Life.” Christianity Today 19 (31 January) 4-6.

Hewitt, T. Furman. (1974). “The Devotional Use of the Bible.” Review and Expositor 71 (Summer) 371-78.

Hingley, C. J. H. (1990). “Evangelicals and Spirituality.” Themelios 15 (April-May) 86-91.

Hinson, E. Glenn., ed. (1968). Seekers After Mature Faith: A Historical Introduction To The Classics of Christian Devotion. Waco, TX: Word Books.

Hinson, E. Glenn. (1974). A Serious Call to a Contemplative Life-Style. Philadelphia: Westminster Press.

Hinson, E. Glenn., ed. (1978). The Doubleday Devotional Classics. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Company.

Hinson, E. Glenn. (1979). The Reaffirmation of Prayer. Nashville: Broadman Press.

Hinson, E. Glenn. (1986). “The Spiritual Formation of the Minister.” Review and Expositor 83 (Fall) 587-95.

Hinson, E. Glenn. (1989). “A Minister’s Devotional Life.” Pulpit Digest 69 (March-April) 69-72

Holcomb, Daniel H. (1991). “The Classics of Christian Devotion: Wellsprings of Spiritual Renewal.” Theological Educator 43 (Spring) 121-32.

Holmes, Urban T., III. (1980). A History of Christian Spirituality. New York: Seabury Press.

Holmes, Urban T., III. (1981). “Recent Literature in Spiritual Theology.” Saint Luke’s Journal of Theology 34 (March) 95-101.

Holmes, Urban T., III. (1982). Spirituality for Ministry. San Francisco: Harper & Row.

Horn, Henry E. (1967). “Piety in the Space Age—Anachronism or Metamorphosis.” The Lutheran Quarterly 19 (February) 9-33.

Horst, Pieter W. van der. (1994). “Silent Prayer in Antiquity.” Numen 41 (January) 1-25.

Hosmer, Rachel. (1984). “Current Literature in Christian Spirituality.” Anglican Theological Review 66 (October) 423-41.

Houston, J. M. (1986). “A Guide to Devotional Reading.” Crux 22 (September) 2-15.

Howe, Rex. (1978). “Spirituality in the Modern World: Modern Spiritual Reading.” The Expository Times 89 (May) 228-30.

Hughes, John T. (1958). “Devotional and Pastoral Classics:” The Expository Times 69 (July) 301-4.

Hughes, R. Kent. (1991). Disciplines of a Godly Man. Wheaton, IL: Crossway Books.

Jackson, George. “The Ethical Teaching of St. Paul: Asceticism True and False.” The Expositor 12 (1905) 180-93.

Jeffrey, George Johnstone. (1957). “Devotional and Pastoral Classics: Oman’s ‘Concerning the Ministry’: A Revaluation.” The Expository Times 69 (November) 36-37

Jensen, Alfred Dewey. (1979). “Remarks on The Imitation of Christ.” Scottish Journal of Theology 32, no. 5, 421-37.

Johnson, Ben Campbell. (1988). Pastoral Spirituality: A Focus for Ministry. Philadelphia: Westminster Press.

Johnson, Ben Campbell. (1997). Listening for God: spiritual Directives for Searching Christians. New York: Paulist Press.

Johnson, Susanne. (2001). “Christian Spiritual Formation in an Age of ‘Whatever.’” Review and Expositor 98(Summer) 309-31.

Jones, Cheslyn, Geoffrey Wainwright, and Edward Yarnold, eds. (1986). The Study of Spirituality. New York: Oxford University Press.

*Jones, L. Gregory. “A Thirst for God or Consumer Spirituality? Cultivating Disciplined Practices of Being Engaged by God.” Modern Theology 13 (January 1997) 3-28.

Jones, L. Gregory. (1996) “Spirituality Lite: Thomas Moore’s Misguided Care of the Soul.” The Christian Century 113 (6 November) 1072-74.

Jones, W. Paul. (1991). “Myers-Briggs Type Indicator: A Psychological Tool for Approaching Theology and Spirituality.” Weavings 6 (May-June) 32-43.

Kaelber, Walter O. (1987). “Asceticism.” In The Encyclopedia of Religion. Edited by Mircea Eliade. Volume 1. New York: MacMillan Publishing Company.

Kannenbiesser, Charles, ed. (1986). Early Christian Spirituality. Translated by Pamela Bright. Philadelphia: Fortress Press.

Kepler, Thomas A., ed. (1948). The Fellowship of the Saints. New York: Abingdon-Cokesbury Press.

Kinderfreund, Anthony. (1942). “Is It Hard to Live with a Saint?” The Homiletic and Pastoral Review 42 (June) 855-59.

King, Ursula. (1990). “Starting With Oneself: Spiritual Confessions: Simone Weil: Waiting on God.” The Expository Times 101 (July) 292-95.

Kirschner, Robert. (1984). “The Vocation of Holiness in Late Antiquity.” Vigilae Christianae 38, no. 2, 105-24.

Kraus, George R. (1980). “The Lutheran Pastor’s Devotional Life.” Concordia Journal 6 (January) 21-25.

*Lamb, Matthew L. “Christian Spirituality and Social Justice.” Horizons 10 (Spring 1983) 32-49.

Lane, George A. (1984). Christian Spirituality. Chicago: Loyola University Press.

Lant, Denis. (1957). “Devotional and Pastoral Classics: Mother Julian’s ‘Revelations of Divine Love.’” The Expository Times 68 (September) 372-74.

Lant, Denis. (1958). “Devotional and Pastoral Classics: Brother Lawrence’s ‘The Practice of the Presence of God.’” The Expository Times 69 (April) 211-13.

Lattke, Michael. “Holiness and Sanctification in the New Testament.” In Perspectives on Language and Text, 351-57. Edited by Edgar W. Conrad and Edward G. Newing. Winona Lake: Eisenbrawns, 1987.

Law, William. (1726). Christian Perfection. London: J. Richardson.

Law, William. (1978). William Law: A Serious Call to a Devout and Holy Life. The Spirit of Love. Edited by Paul Stanwood. New York: Paulist Press.

Leclercq, Jean, and François Vandenbroucke, and Louis Bouyer. (1982). The Spirituality of the Middle Ages. New York: Seabury Press.

Lewis, Gordon R. (1993). “The Church and the New Spirituality.” Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 36 (December) 433-44.

Lewis, Gordon R. (2003). “Is Propositional Revelation Essential to Evangelical Spiritual Formation?” Journ of the Evangelical Theological Society 46/2 (June) 269-98.

Little, Katharine Day. (1951). François de Fénelon. New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers.

Littleton, Mark R. (1983). “Some Quiet Confessions About Quiet Time.” Leadership 4 (Fall) 81-85.

Long, Thomas G. (1992). “Myers-Briggs and Other Modern Astrologies.” Theology Today 49 (October) 291-95.

Lovelace, Richard. (1973). “The Sanctification Gap.” Theology Today 29 (January) 363-69.

Lovelane, Richard. (1990). “Evangelicalism: Recovering a Tradition of Spiritual Depth.” The Reformed Journal 40 (September) 20-25.

Macarius the Great, St. (1974). Fifty Spiritual Homilies. Translated by A. J. Mason. Willits, CA: Eastern Orthodox Books.

MacDonald, Gordon. (1985). Ordering Your Private World. Nashville: Thomas Nelson.

Magill, Frank N., and Ian P. McGreal, eds. (1988). Christian Spirituality. HarperSanFrancisco.

Manz, James G. (1962). “The Devotional Use of the Bible.” Concordia Theological Monthly 33 (July) 410-15.

Maxson, Ben. (1991). “Are you a day’s journey from God?” Ministry 63 (January) 6-8.

McDonough, James Lee. (1961). Western Asceticism and Early Christian Thought: An Investigation of the Backgrounds of Western asceticism and Its Effect on Christian Thought to 529 A.D. Master of Arts Thesis. Abilene, TX: Abilene Christian College.

McFarland, John Robert. (1985). “Prayer as an Occasional Thing.” The Christian Century 102 (17 April) 373-74.

McGinn, Bernard, and John Meyendorff, eds. (1992). Christian Spirituality: Origins to the Twelfth Century. New York: Crossroad.

McGinn, Bernard. (1996). “The Changing Shape of Late Medieval Mysticism.” Church History 65/2 (June) 197-219.

McGrath, Alister E. (1995). Beyond the Quiet Time. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books.

McGrath, Alister E. (1999). Christian Spirituality: An Introduction. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.

McGrath, Alister E. (1999). The Journey. New York: Doubleday.

McIntosh, John. (1976). “Proposals for Godliness in the Church.” Reformed Theological Review 35 (September-December) 79-88.

McIntosh, Mark A. (1999). “Some Recent Works in Spirituality.” Anglical Theological Review 81/2 (Spring) 371-79.

McLaughlin, Eleanor L. (1984). “Priestly Spirituality.” Anglican Theological Review 66, Supplementary Series: 9, 52-69.

McLeod, Frederick G. (1986). “Apophatic or Kataphatic Prayer?” Spirituality Today 38 (Spring) 41-52.

McMinn, Mark R., and Todd W. Hall. (2000). “Christian Spirituality in a Postmodern Era.” Journal of Psychology and Theology 28, no. 4, 251-53.

Mebane, D. Louise, and Charles R. Ridley. (1988). “The Role-Sending of Perfectionism: Overcoming Counterfeit Spirituality.” Journal of Psychology and Theology 16, 4, 332-39.

Merton, Thomas. (1948). The Seven Storey Mountain. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company.

Merton, Thomas. (1949). Seeds of Contemplation. Norfolk, CN: New Directions Book.

Meyendorff, John. (1987). “Theological Education in the Patristic and Byzantine Eras and Its Lessons for Today.” St. Vladimir’s Theological Quarterly 31, no. 3, 197-213.

Micklem, Nathaniel. (1958). “Devotional and Pastoral Classics: Thomas Traherne’s ‘Centuries of Meditations.’” The Expository Times 69 (June) 264-65.

Miles, Margaret R. (1989). “Imitation of Christ: Is It Possible in the Twentieth Century?” The Princeton Seminary Bulletin 10, no. 1, 7-22.

Mitton, Leslie. (1958). “Devotional and Pastoral Classics: George Herbert’s ‘The Country Parson.’” The Expository Times 69 (January) 113-15.

Moberg, David O. (1969). “Theological Self-Classification and Ascetic Moral Views of Students.” Review of Religious Research 10 (Winter) 100-7.

Moellering, H. Armin. (1991). “Spirituality Defined, Dissected, Recommended, Schematized.” Concordia Journal 17 (April) 176-83.

Monkres, Peter R. (1987). “Teaching Prayer to the Congregation.” The Christian Ministry 18 (November-December) 20-23.

Montgomery, John Warwick. (1961). “100 Select Devotional Books.” Christianity Today 5 (25 September) 6-8.

Mulholland, M. Robert, Jr. (1993). Invitation to a Journey. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press.

Murray, Andrew, ed. (1976). Wholly For God: Selections From the Writing of William Law. Reprint edition. Minneapolis, MN: Bethany Fellowship.

Mursell, Gordon, ed. (2001). The Story of Christian Spirituality. Minneapolis, MI: Fortress Press.

Muto, Susan. (1994). “Spiritual Reading of the Christian Classics: An Avenue to Faith Deepening and Faithful Living.” Ashland Theological Journal 26, 47-66.

Nouwen, Henri J. M. (1981). The Way of the Heart. New York: Ballantine Books.

Oden, Thomas C. (1994). “Blinded by the ‘Lite.’” Christianity Today 38 (12 September) 14-15.

O’Deonnell, Joseph. (1982). “Spirituality: A Roman Catholic Perspective.” Review and Expositor 79 (Spring) 293-305.

Oglesbee, Clay. (1989). “From Praying to Proclaiming: The Lectio Divina in Sermon Formation.” Preaching 5(November-December) 16-19.

Old, Hughes Oliphant. (1994). “Rescuing Spirituality from the Cloister.” Christianity Today 38 (20 June) 27-29.

Ortberg, John. (1995). “What makes Spirituality Christian?” Christianity Today 39 (March 6) 16-17.

Osburn, Carroll D. (1975). “Cultural Aspects of 1 Timothy 4:3-5.” Firm Foundation (26 August) 6.

Oswald, Roy M., and Otto Kroeger. (1988). Personality Type and Religious Leadership. Research from the Alban Institute.

Owen, H. P. (1959). “Existentialism and Ascetical Theology.” Church Quarterly Review 160 (April-June) 226-31.

Owen, Trevor A. (1981). Lancelot Andrewes. Boston: Twayne Publishers.

Packer, J. I. (1991). “‘Go Fetch Baxter.’” Christianity Today 35 (16 December) 26-28.

Palmer, Parker. (1986). “Borne Again: The Monastic Way to Church Renewal.” Weavings 1 (September-October) 12-21.

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Reader Comments (11)

Wow! what a list! That would take almost a lifetime to get through reading!

I'm glad to see that you've included some Orthodox sources. I have learnt so much about prayer from them. The most practical thing I've learnt is the "Jesus Prayer" - a simple prayer that can be said throughout the day in whatever circumstance, asking Jesus for his mercy. Also love Alister McGrath's stuff.

I wonder what you think about litugical prayer and liturgical worship in general. What has struck me as I've researched church history is the liturgical forms of worship accross both Western and Eastern Christianity. Liturgy was central to early Christian spirituality as it was to the Jews before them. Saying the The Lord's Prayer is central to all liturgical churches. And I must confess in my SDA tradition, the Lord's Prayer is hardly recited in the congregation despite Jesus' direction to do so. Also, the singing/chanting of the Psalms is also central. The Psalms are essentially prayers to God - their primary function is not to be studied like a textbook, but to be prayed and sung. Again my SDA tradition does not do this either. In the Catholic, Orthodox and Anglican traditions there are scripture readings every service. Scripture is read aloud, without being interupted with comment, and it is allowed to be heard and comtemplated by the congregation. Then a brief homily is said by the priest explaining what was read. Sometimes I think in many Protestant traditions, there is an appearance of scriptural fidelity in the sermons, but what it often ends up being is the words of men diluting the words of scripture. Let Scripture be read for its own sake - didn't Paul admonish Timothy to encourage the reading of Scripture in Church?

And of course the centerpiece of liturgy is the Eucharist or Lord's Super - which is the height of a Christian's spiritual experience. Again many Protestant churches (and Anglicans are not properly classified as Protestants) sort of give the Eucharist a secondary place in worship. Everything is about the sermon. Spirituality then risks becoming dry. The fe- themselves within the narrative of salvation. It is not a detached, intellectual experience as with many Protestants who reject such festivals.

And, of course, the whole thing about all Liturgy is that it is done together. Together. Words like "we" and "us" are used.

I would love to see Liturgy be part of SDA worship. My devotional book for this year is "Common Prayer - A Liturgy for Ordinary Radicals" - an adaptation of the Anglican Book of Common Prayer. It has morning and evening prayers, which are soaked in the scriptures. Psalms are prayed. The Lord's prayer is said every morning and evening. There is an OT reading and NT reading for everyday. And the apostle's creed is recited, reminding us that doctrine does matter. There is even a prayer to welcome the Sabbath. What I have found wonderful about it is the Trinitarian prayers it contains. Again, the doctrine of the Holy Trinity actually makes up part of the Christian experience, it is not merely a lofty doctrine that we sign up or try to discern rationally. Knowing God, which for a Christian means the Holy Trinity, is praying and communicating with him (I note that for the Eastern Orthodox a theologian is defined as someone who prays - i.e. someone who knows God, not someone who studies as in the West). So our prayers should be Trinitarian in shape, if not explicitly Trinitarian as many of the prayers of the early Church were. This has been of immense benefit to me.

Feb 9, 2012 | Unregistered CommenterSimon

Good to hear from you, Simon. I'm not feeling so well at the moment, nothing serious, just a bad cold that is hanging on. But I wanted you to know I had read and appreciated you comment.

I haven't given as much thought or had has much experience with various liturgies as you have. I agree with your conviction of our need to hear the word of God read more often together in our worship. I also like the order and sense of reverence I've felt in some of the ancient European churches I've visited in Romania, Finland, and England. Whether they were ultimately built for God's glory or man's is another question.

I'm still mulling over and reading up on the theology underlying Catholic forms of worship, particularly in personal spiritual formation. I also have a number of books on the Council of Trent from Catholic historians that I want to finish. There are far too many gaps in my grasp of church history. My primary interest remains in soteriology, but that cannot be separated from ecclesiology in historical theology.

I very much believe that the Lord's Supper is abused on the one hand and neglected on the other.

I think there are core conflicts, critical conflicts between Catholic and Protestant theology that recent discussions between the two have glossed over. I do not see any amount of ecumenical good will bridging the gulf without a serious distortion of Protestant belief.

I see the tension between academic theology and piety that you highlight at the end of your comment as very real. I would not define it so sharply as an issue between East and West as much as a similar resurgence of spiritual longing like that which followed the dry scholastic orthodoxy created by the Counter Reformation and the Enlightenment. But the real danger for me is the postmodern syncretism of polytheism with Christian faith. Variant forms of pantheism pervade postmodern Christian faith and practice, often being confused with classic Christian mysticism. Anything goes under the name of God today. These practices are idolatrous at the root, a worship of autonomous man rather than our triune God.

I keep coming back to the theology underlying any religious praxis. What one believes about the nature of man and the nature of God defines how one relates to the other in any type of relationship.

Feb 9, 2012 | Registered CommenterJan McKenzie

Hey Jan thanks for the response.

I'll have to think more about some of the things you have said here. I will say now though that I think post-modernism is on its last legs. I do think people have a longing for truth. You see this with modern atheism at the moment. The modern atheists aren't saying "you have your truth and and I'll have mine". They are saying that religion of any type is precisely wrong and are very dogmatic about this. So I think the world is moving past post modernism. This is true in the Church as well. The most forceful critics of the old conservative modern approach - men like N.T. Wright - can hardly be described as post modern. But this is a topic for another time.

But on the subject of prayer in SDA congregational worship, surely things like the Lord's prayer and the singing of the Psalms would be welcome additions to our worship. Sometimes I think that we've thrown out practises simply because they are Roman and for no other reason. The Lord's prayer I think should be paramount in the prayer life for any Christian because this is how Jesus taught us to pray. I have prayed the Lord's prayer more times in the last 3 months than I have in total before that. In fact, I can't even remember saying the Lord's prayer before I recently made a conscious effort to do so. Also the liturgical calendar. Even if you don't want to celebrate the feast days, surely having a lectionary would be desireable. You would have scriptures readings for the day read in church and the preacher would espound those readings. To me this is preferable than having a minister set his own agenda every week. He would be tied to the reading for the day and the congregation would hear all or most of scripture throughout the year. It would be far more balanced too. Anyway I don't think these changes would ever be adopted in such a low church tradition as ours. But I do think some aspects of liturgical worship are sensible.

Hope you feel better soon :)

Feb 10, 2012 | Unregistered CommenterSimon

I agree, Simon. Just because something comes from vast history of what became the Roman church doesn't mean we must discount it all. I think your ideas on prayer and Scripture are very important matters. And indeed, people all over the world are seeking for something better.

And I also don't consider N.T. Wright in the postmodern mold, though I do question some of his primary emphasis in Romans, etc. I've read more of his friend's work, James D.G. Dunn, who also follows E.P. Sanders in some important respects on the "New Perspective" of Paul. In fact, Dunn coined the term. I have Dunn's NT theology, his commentary on Romans, Galatians, and several others of his earlier work on baptism and the Holy Spirit. I think they are over-playing Second Temple Judaism for N.T. interpretation as well overstating the Jews lack of legalism. Much depends on whether one places extra-biblical documents above Scripture as primary sources of authority. Their hermeneutics (and this is evidence of that) come from the higher critical school which places so much in form and source criticism, as you know. So much time can be spent getting "behind" the text that the authority of Scripture is undermined or muted. i.e. Kevin VanHoozer's, "Is There a Meaning in this Text?" (he says yes).

Having said all that, I appreciate the points they raise for New Testament theology. It has given me a lot to think over. I do like much of what Dunn has to say. Of course, his Arminian point of view makes the Calvinist squirm.

Feb 10, 2012 | Registered CommenterJan McKenzie

Correction: I said I have Dunn's NT Theology. I meant to say I have his Theology of Paul the Apostle, which he outlines through comparative study in the book of Romans with the rest of Paul's writing. I have the book in front of me now to do some Sabbath reading on his chapter, The Gospel.

Feb 10, 2012 | Registered CommenterJan McKenzie

Well the New Perspectives is a whole other topic. I'll have to read Sanders and Dunn. I have so far only read Wright on this. His book on Justification written in response to Piper and his book entitled "What St Paul Really Said". I have to say that I am persuaded by his arguments, particularly concerning Galatians. If you use the immediate Biblical context without reference to extrabiblical sources (which you want) as the lens through which we interpret chapters 2 and 3, then I think Wright's point is basically established. The problem here was that the Jewish Christians were seperating themselves from Gentile Christians AND trying to make Gentiles become Jewish through circumcision and other "works of the law". The answer to this problem for Paul was the doctrine of justification - the bringing together of God's people - Jew, Gentile, male female etc - in the Messiah. Hence Paul's references to Abraham and his seed. Those who have faith in the Messiah are true Israel, true descendents of Abraham over against the Torah as defining Abraham's family. I think this is very clear from the immediate context we read in Galatians.

And I do think that the research into second Temple Judaism is a context for which we should understand phrases like "works of the law". Unless we understand the context with which the NT was written, we're bound to commit anachronisms. So Luther's reading of "works of the law" to mean moral deeds by which an individual tries to earn their own salvation, simply was not the context, both biblical and historical, in which the New Testament was written. That Galatians' use of that phrase seems to correspond to how other Second Temple texts used that phrase should give us pause. This doesn't mean the Luther was totally wrong, or that the Roman Catholics were right. It simply means that the questions Luther was struggling with were not the questions Paul was dealing with - this is clearest in Galatians. There were major problems in Catholicism in the middle ages, and Luther was right to use scripture to scrutinize Rome. But this doesn't automatically mean that all of his conclusions were always precise, that he was an infallible interpreter of scripture and so on. And I do think that the Reformation has basically gone too far in "individualizing" the gospel. For all the cries from today's hyper-Calvinists against "man-centered" distortions to the gospel, to me it is precisely this extremely individual approach to soteriology that is truly "man-centered". It makes everything about "me". Rather, just as the earth revolves around the Sun, we revolve around the Son of God - He doesn't revolve around us. We are drawn into his family, we are saved not only as individuals, but with others. And not only with others, but with the whole of creation (Romans 8). I think this is where NT Wright's version of the New Perspective is particularly encouraging. Human beings are created for each other and for this world. God is healing our divisions and the brokenness of the created world. Indeed, he has done this in and through Jesus the Messiah. Our individual salvation finds meaning within God's cosmic purposes. And we find ourselves with a vocation, in bringing people into this wonderful reality - that God's Kingdom has arrived in Jesus.

When I came back to faith, after years of indifference, I did it through reading Romans in the "Old perspective" way, as have countless others. So I value that immensely. However, that isn't to say that that was all to discover in the text. I think we must always remeber this. And, at least in NT Wright's exposition, I don't think we lose any of that sense of wonder and appreciation for God's saving work for me as an individual with the New Perspective.

Anyways, just my 2 cents worth :)

Feb 11, 2012 | Unregistered CommenterSimon


These recent lectures by N.T. Wright on some forthcoming books are part of the reason why I gravitate towards him rather than the Piper/Carson/Packer camp. It is more thoughtful, engages with scripture at a deeper level and, most importantly, is far more hopeful than what we are hearing from the hyper-Calvinists today. And no one can claim that Wright is just some flimsy, post modern mega church pastor that doesn't take the scriptures or sin seriously. But I think his vision for Christianity is far richer, more loving, more hopeful and more thoughtful than the sort of truncated "you are damned by God, and unless you believe in Jesus you're going to be punished in Hell for all eternity" gospel we are hearing in the U.S. today. I think his work on Paul is part of the same fabric as his universally celebrated work on Jesus (particularly the resurrection). So to say, as many conservative evangelicals do, that his work on the resurrection is excellent, but he's no good on Paul shows that they really haven't understood Wright on either. Watch the lectures, very interesting and inspiring stuff.

Simply Jesus:

How God Became King:

Feb 11, 2012 | Unregistered CommenterSimon

I haven't neglected Wright for any other reason than time. I think anyone who is charged with keeping abreast of current issues in theology needs to have at least a basic understanding of someone so influential. Whether or not he would move my heart toward God, only reading him would tell. Hopefully I can catch up some day.

I certainly agree with you on Hyper-Calvinism. I think a primary problem the men you mention have with Wright, Dunn, etc. is over election, not only justification. Of course, the two are intimately related. That has been a key issue in disagreements over Barth as well.

Feb 13, 2012 | Registered CommenterJan McKenzie

I think, even if you don't totally agree with what Wright says, you'll almost surely find things that will lift your faith up. Even the ultra conservatives in America praise his seminal work on the resurrection. If I didn't have much time and wanted to get familiar with Wright I'd start with his book "Surprised by Hope". It's relatively short. But it is absolutely brilliant - it's about resurrection and what this means, eschatology and the mission of the church. Simply inspiring. "Evil and the Justice of God" is another short book of his that is worth reading. His much larger academic volume on the resurrection would be extremely useful for any pastor who wanted to gain an informed and intelligent defense of the historicity of the resurrection - something that you could pass on to your flock in sermons etc. It's an invaluable piece of NT scholarship. This is a massive work however and I'm sure your reading list is already huge, but it is definitely worth a mention. Like I said you don't have to agree with him on justification to appreciate what he has written on other stuff and you'll almost surely be blessed with what he has to say.

I don't think Wright has come into conflict with the "fist-in-your-face" Calvinists (why are some of these men so unpleasant?) over election... yet. That doesn't seem to be the issue they have with him. I don't think you could ever describe Wright as a 5 point Calvinist, he does prefer Calvin's continuity between the Old and New Covenants over Luther's apparent disdain for Judaism and covenental discontinuity. What these modern hyper Calvinists seem to object to is Wright's denial of the Reformed notion of imputation, preference for Christus Victor theory of atonement and to the political implications of his Kingdom of God emphasis. That is to say that, if Jesus is raised from the dead and all authority in heaven and on earth has (past tense, not future tense - please take note SDAs) been given to him, then there are very stark political implications of the gospel - like helping the poor, working for social and ecological justice, and so on. If Jesus really is King of the world, then what should the world look like? And of course conservative evangelicals, who are also mostly politically conservative, don't like hearing that stuff. This is why, I think, many expressions of American Protestantism flirts with gnosticism. Where salvation is escape from this world into some place called heaven. It means we don't have to worry about poverty or ecological crisis, because one day God is going to take us all away from here, which, of course, will be next week or the week after that. But the Bible is actually about how God recreates the world - the new earth. This means that God cares very much about his creation and what happens in it and wants to redeem it - and indeed has redeemed all of creation (not only humanity) in Jesus. I think this message has been sorely missing in American Protestantism in general, not least in our own SDA heritage. So there are gems that can be found in Wright even if you don't always agree with him.

Feb 14, 2012 | Unregistered CommenterSimon

How do you see the church speaking or acting in an effective way on the issues you mention? How does this take place without denying the clear eschatological context of Scripture? We cannot speak of the covenant without an awareness, even an urgency, for covenant consummation, for the promises to be realized in the particular time and space of human existence. The covenant themes of promise and fulfillment demand on eschatological hope. According to the Apocalypse, the world refuses to acknowledge the Lordship of Christ every step of the way, opposing his dominion that would set the creation free and bring in his reign of righteousness through the whole earth. The "day of the Lord" permeates both Testaments in two primary ways, as a day of grace for the redeemed and judgment on the impenitent. Christ did all his work with the cross in view, a singular, particular moment of grace and judgment. How do you see our work as cross bearing Christians follow that paradigm of Christ? Don't misunderstand me. I believe in working for justice on every level in the here and now. My question is how? I have my own theology on this but I'm asking for yours :) My key is looking at how Christ met the same issues in his day.

And thanks for the thoughts. BTW...What do you do for living, Simon?

Feb 14, 2012 | Registered CommenterJan McKenzie


I agree that there is a clear eschatological context in scripture. The scriptural teaching of God's Kingdom being inaugurated in the life, death and resurrection of Jesus does not deny this at all. This is going to be a little ad hoc, but let me list some of my reasons:

1) The work we do in the here an now in no way takes away from the glory when all things put right in the new creation. Indeed the Kingdom work we do in the here and now anticipate the day when God is "all in all". Paul says that our work will not "be in vain". Hope is not static. It points beyond itself to something greater. It's not that we set up the Kingdom ourselves, rather we anticipate the Kingdom in the kind of lives we live, in working for justice etc. This all points toward to something more marvelous than what we achieve now for God by his Spirit (it's not us who do this work btw, we need the Spirit. So this is not corporate Pelagianism). The New Testament does not teach fatalism. When Jesus teaches us to be peacemakers he doesn't mean, "wink wink, but don't you know that the world is going to hell and a hand basket anyway so your efforts will come to nought, but trying is what really matters". No I think he expects us to be people who go about changing the world by being peacemakers, forgiving, being meek, loving our enemies carrying our cross. It simply is not a Biblical teaching that we should sit back and wait for God to do it all in the end. He has called us to be his co-workers, we participate in putting the world to rights.

2) The Incarnation of our Lord was for the express purpose of inaugurating God's Kingdom. That is why Jesus went about saying "the Kingdom of God is at hand". I don't think he meant in 2 or 3 thousand years time. I think he means now. All the healings, miracles he did were not magic tricks to prove that he was the Son of God. Rather these are normal things that happen when God's Kingdom is established. People are healed, storms are calmed, sins are forgiven. And the cross and resurrection is integral to this story. Kingdom and the cross go together, they are not separate independent events as I have been brought up to believe. Jesus goes about preaching the Kingdom of God. He is put to death for this. But in his resurrection he has defeated the powers of sin and death. We are called to announce that God's Kingdom has arrived in Jesus. We have a vocation. Knowing that Jesus is Lord of the world we live in that reality now. This was the sole teaching in Jesus' ministry. The sermon on the mount, even the Olivett discourse that ends with the parable of the sheep and the goats. Why is that parable the conclusion to a sermon about the "end of the age"? Because those who are ultimately welcomed into his Kingdom at the consumation of all things already live the Kingdom life in the present. Christianity is not a strategy of waiting for it all to end. And so evangelism isn't only about saving souls so that they can go to heaven. Indeed if we will all inhabit the new earth, what does "going to heaven" mean? If fact, if evangelism is solely about saving souls from the wicked world so that they can live in heaven forever more, I would suggest that this is half way to Gnosticism. It completely ignores the Kingdom of God stuff Jesus spent all that time talking about in the Gospels. Redemption is about God putting this world right again. All of his creation. It is precisely not about humans leaving and going somewhere else. God redeems us and we are to be part of this grand project launched in Jesus Christ and through the Spirit. We are saved with the world (Romans 8), not from it. If we have this vision it is very clear to me that working for peace and justice go hand in hand with the Gospel pronouncement.

3) The first Advent of our Lord God and Savior Jesus Christ was an apocalypse itself. This is how it is talked about in the New Testament. The Gospels talk about Jesus being the one who has fulfilled the OT promises to establish God's rule on earth and vindicate his people. Look at Mary's magnificat. The promise made to Abraham was seen to be fulfilled in Christ. This is also clear in Paul. He doesn't merely use Abraham as an example, but as the beginning of God's promise to recreate the world. And this is now fulfilled in Israel's Messiah, Jesus. In fact he uses the Greek word for apocalypse in Galatians 3:23 when he says that now faith has been "revealed" (the Greek for apocalypse) in the coming of Israel's Messiah. He then concludes the chapter by saying we who are in Christ are Abraham's offspring. In other words, the Jewish longing for God to act on his promises, to bless the whole world and vindicate his people (i.e. Abraham's offspring) has been accomplished in Jesus.

Look also at John's Gospel. It begins the same way as Genesis "In the beginning". This is the story about how God is recreating the world. And there other Genesis creation paralell's in John's Gospel.

3) The resurrection. Perhaps this should be the first point. Read the resurrection narratives - particularly Matthew 28. When Jesus gives the Great Commission, right before that he says "all authority in heaven and on earh has been given to me" In other words Jesus is the King of the world already. The one who sits at the right hand of the Father is the one who rules earth. That is why this statement of authority is followed immediately by the Great Commission. Jesus is King and we go about announcing this and living in this reality. The resurrection is not simply another event on a timeline to be ticked off. It is a paradigm changing event. It changes everything. It means, in some sense, that God's Kingdom has arrived. Why is it that we starting counting time again with reference to Jesus? It is precisely because the early Christians believed that the coming age had broken into present age of sin and death because of Israel's Messiah Jesus. Paul says that Christ is the "first fruits of them that have slept". We live in the resurrection age. Christ is the first fruit, we are the harvest yet to come. God's great gift of new creation has come forward to meet us in the resurrection of Christ. And if new creation has begun, then we live like new creatures, as St Paul says. The very political message of Christ's resurrection and Kingship over the world is precisely the motivation for doing justice and loving mercy. We are citizens of heaven - meaning we bring the civilization of heaven into the world in which we are placed. Our King is Jesus. We do not behave and worldly empires behave with violence and force. We go about humbly and gently doing things that make this world a better place just as Jesus taught us.

I'm rambling a bit. It might not make any sense to you. It is very hard to explain to people who are not accustomed to reading the text this way. I hope you get a sense of what I'm talking about. There is, of course so much more to be said about this, and I probably haven't articulated myself very well. Listen to the NT Wright lecture I posted above on How God became King. He puts it much better than I ever could. But I'd be interested in hearing what you think is the impetus for Christian involvement in issues that are really destroying humanity and creation.

I'm an economist, currently doing consulting work in Papua New Guinea for some private companies and government agencies :)


Feb 15, 2012 | Unregistered CommenterSimon
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